I don't know anything about spring, but what I can see on this page: http://www.springsource.org/features/modern-web
the answer is no, they are not the same.
Spring is an entire framework, and it specifies that SpringMVC is a component of that framework.
Can't really recommend for you a web based approach for java either. I don't use JSP or Java in a web environment, so I'm not sure whether you need to learn something else before you learn spring.