Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language. I just started learning it and I kind of like it. It has a style unique to itself. I see people generally use python as a substitute for perl or tcl.
SOAP is Simple Object Access Protocol, not a programming language by itself. It's like XML in a sense. In fact it's XML based. It's used for passing information in distributed environments. For example, you can use it with HTTP to exchange server and client information.
C# - Haven't used it yet. But as far as I know C# is to the .NET common language runtime as Java is to JVM. Simply put, it's another object-oriented programming language.
Ruby is an object-oriented scripting language and that's what I know about it