You need to start with a website, which would be subscribing to a shared wehbost, like GoDaddy, 1and1, cleverdot, etc. You'll pay a yearly fee (like $40-70) and then pay a yearly fee for your own domain name (like $7-$12 per year).
Once you have your own website, you can start playing ... the fun begins.
You'll need software to upload and download your scripts and pages between your computer and your website. You can get FileZilla (which is free). That method of transferring files back and forth is called "FTP" - File Transfer Protocol.
Your total cost per year would be $50-$80 depending on who your webhost is.
When you get a new webhost account, they will tell you how to access your website control panel, how to set up your own email accounts, and how to access FTP.
Any site that requires dynamic features, (forms, databases, voting scripts, content management, etc) will need to use a server-side language like PHP.
Everything you need to learn can be found via Google. Online tutorials, examples, pre-made voting scripts, etc.
You may decide to make your website all in a WordPress environment. That again is another learning curve.
Any previous programming experience you've had will be very beneficial (BASIC, C++, Visual BASIC, etc). You'll already understand basic program structure.