I'm looking to add SMS capabilities to my web site (much like facebook, in that you can send a text message to a number, and it will add it to my web site).

I've done some research, and found that this is typically done using something called a "short code" which is a 5 or 6 character "domain name" in the SMS world. Problem is, they cost $1700 to register and $900 / month to maintain. Which is a little pricey for my needs at this point.

I'm also looking to bill a nominal fee for each such message (probably in the area of $0.10 - $0.15 per SMS).

My questions are:
1) Do I need a short code to do the billing, or can I use a standard 10 digit (123-456-7890 ex) phone number
2) How do you set up such a system
3) Can the phone companies help with this, or is it done through a third party system?

Any help / ideas and links to resources would be appreciated.